Monday, April 24, 2017

The Unveiling of Joseph

Alice C. Linsley

Joseph's rise to power came when he was recognized as a seer, that is, one who opens dreams and visions. In Genesis we find he is called abrikku; which is related to the Akkadian abarakku, which means grand vizier (Delitzsch, Hebrew Language Viewed in the Light of Assyrian Research, p. 26). There is a relationship to the Sumerian abrilc (seer) and the Latin aperire (to open).

In ancient Egypt, dream interpretation was the domain of priests who trained in this "science" in order to gain advancement in the priestly ranks. Seer-priests studied manuals of hundreds of dream interpretations. This was a way for priests to increase their incomes, and this probably motivated many to excel in dream interpretation. Apparently, many of the royal seers were not very good at it. Genesis 41:8 tells us that they failed to interpret the dream that Pharaoh had repeatedly. That is how Joseph came to prominence.

Joseph's wisdom comes from his reliance on the Lord's revelation of the meaning. When asked by Pharaoh if he can explain the meaning of the ruler's dream, Joseph answered the Pharaoh: "It is not in me; God will give Pharaoh a favorable answer." (Gen. 41:16)

Given that only circumcised men were permitted an audience with Pharaoh, it is likely that Pharaoh was already well aware that Joseph as a Hebrew of the Horite ruler-priest caste. This explains the ruler's great favor toward Joseph and his rapid elevation to abrikku/abarakku.

In ancient Egypt the high ranking rulers were not seen without their royal garb and instruments of authority. Joseph's appearance as "lord" of all of Pharaoh's house and "a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt" (grand vizier) would have been such that his brothers would not have recognized him. Joseph was clean-shaven, whereas his Horite Hebrew brothers had long hair and beards. His head was shaved as a "korah" or ruler-priest. He wore the signet ring given him by Pharaoh, a gold chain, and a garment of fine linen with fringes, such as those worn by the ruler=priest caste.

The narrative in Genesis 45:1-8 is touching and intimate.

Then Joseph could not restrain himself before all those who stood by him, and he cried out, “Make everyone go out from me!” So no one stood with him while Joseph made himself known to his brothers. And he wept aloud, and the Egyptians and the house of Pharaoh heard it.
Then Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph; does my father still live?” But his brothers could not answer him, for they were dismayed in his presence. And Joseph said to his brothers, “Please come near to me.” So they came near. Then he said: “I am Joseph your brother, whom you sold into Egypt. But now, do not therefore be grieved or angry with yourselves because you sold me here; for God sent me before you to preserve life. For these two years the famine has been in the land, and there are still five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvesting. And God sent me before you to preserve a posterity for you in the earth, and to save your lives by a great deliverance. So now it was not you who sent me here, but God; and He has made me a father to Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler throughout all the land of Egypt.

Only the personal servant of the ruler knew intimate details of the ruler's daily ablutions. This servant helped the ruler to dress in elaborate style consistent with the ruler's rank. The lower ranking officials wore loincloths. Gold discs were worn on the chest and attached in the back. The men wore a nemes, a blue and gold stripped head-cloth falling down both sides of the head, the front of each shoulder and the back. Another headdress worn by royal officials was the khat (shown below).

The royal-priests wore leopard skins as a sign of their royal priesthood.

Joseph married Asenath, daughter of the "priest of On" on the Lower Nile (Gen. 41:45).  On was also called "Heliopolis" or City of the Sun. The people who lived in Heliopolis called the shrine city Iunu, which means place of pillars.

Asenath's father was Putiphar or Potiphera. This is a title composed of the words pu and tifra. Putifra in ancient Egyptian means "this order" and likely relates to the order of Horite priests. The stela of Putiphar speaks of Putiphar as the "son of Horus, may He live forever."

Asenath was raised at Heliopolis. Likely, she was Joseph's patrilineal cousin. Her first born son belonged to the Heliopolis shrine, whereas Ephraim, her younger son belonged to the House of Jacob. This explains why Jacob gave him the blessing that pertained to the first born (Gen. 48:14).

Related reading: Joseph and Judah as Instruments of Deliverance; The Enigma of Joseph; Archaic and Ancient Symbols of Authority; The Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative; Evidence of the Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative; Sun Cities of the Ancient World

Thursday, April 20, 2017

Evidence of the Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative

Inscribed Phiale, ca. 410 B.C.E. Silver, 7/8 x Diam. 6 1/4 in. (2.3 x 15.8 cm). Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 54.50.34. Creative Commons-BY (Photo: Brooklyn Museum, 54.50.34_SL1.jpg)

Geshem (Gashmu) the Arabian (450–430 BC) is mentioned in Nehemiah 2:10 and in an Aramaic inscription on a silver libation bowl discovered at the Nile shrine of Tell el-Maskhuta, in the eastern delta. The bowl, dating to the Persion Period, is inscirbed "Ilwhat Qainu son of Geshem, King of Qedar, brought in offering to Han-Ilat" and refers to Qainu, the royal son and apparent heir of King Geshem of Qedar.

See William J. Dumbrell, “The Tell el-Maskhuta Bowls and the ‘Kingdom’ of Qedar in the Persian Period,” BASOR 203 (October 1971): pp. 35–44; OROT, pp. 74–75, 518 n. 26; Raging Torrent, p. 55.

Qedar was a kingdom in northwest Arabia. The royal name Qainu is a variant of Kaynau, Qaynu, Kayan, Qayan, Qaniti, Khan, and Kain. The Qainu bowl is evidence of the continuation of the royal name Kain, which means king. Geshem is named king and apparently his son Qainu (Kain) ascended to his throne (430–410 BC). The rulers of Qedar intermarried with the other royal lines of Arabia, including the houses of Nabataea and Dedan. The cousin brides named their first born sons after their fathers and this explains how royal names such as Kain, Enoch, Lamech, Terah, Nahor, Joktan and Esau appear repeatedly in these royal lineages.

Lamech Segment Analysis
© 1998 Alice C. Linsley

Lamech the Elder had a daughter, Naamah. She married her patrilineal cousin, Methuselah, and named their first born son Lamech, after her father.

The biblical name Geshem is also rendered Gashm or Jasm, and is identified as a son of the Dedanite ruler Shahr. See Frederick V. Winnett and William L. Reed, Ancient Records from North Arabia (University of Toronto Press, 1970), pp. 115–117.

Sunday, March 26, 2017

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

Celebrating today!

The average lifespan of U.S. blogs is 33.8 months according to this 2006 report. JUST GENESIS began on March 22, 2007 and has run for 10 years as of today.

I want to thank faithful readers in Alabama, California, Colorado, Florida, Kentucky, North and South Carolina, Nevada, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Washington, and to regular readers in Albania, Australia, Canada, Dubai, Ecuador, Finland, Germany, Honduras, India, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Africa, Spain, Uganda, and the United Kingdom.

Also I want to thank and welcome new readers.

May God bless all of you!

Related reading: INDEX; Alice C. Linsley's Research on Genesis; Join The Bible and Anthropology

Sunday, March 12, 2017

The Relationship of John the Baptist and Jesus Messiah

Alice C. Linsley

Kinship analysis provide insight into the relationship of John the Forerunner and Jesus Messiah. It helps us to identify the relationship between of the priestly lines from which both are descended. Understanding how Jesus and John were related helps us to grasp more fully John's testimony concerning Jesus Messiah.

There have been many attempts to reconcile the genealogical information given in Matthew 1 and Luke 3. These lists are used by the writers for different narrative purposes. Nevertheless, once we understand the marriage and ascendancy pattern of the Horite Hebrews we can recognize the historical validity of the biblical claim that John and Jesus were blood relatives and both of the Horite Hebrew priestly lines.

A fruitful approach to investigating the relationship of Jesus and John is to look for the repetition of patterns such as two wives, three sons, the cousin-bride's naming prerogative, etc. The first step to understanding the marriage and ascendancy pattern of John and Jesus is to diagram the Biblical data, such as I have done in the diagram of Moses's ancestry.

John and Jesus come from the priestly lines that descend from Amram. One line is traced through Aaron, Moses's full-brother, and the other is traced through Korah, Moses' half-brother. According to Numbers 26, Korah's claim to be priest was supported by the Hanochites (descendants of Jacob's first born son, Reuben). Korah the younger is named by his mother Ishar after her father, according tot he cousin-bride's naming prerogative. Ishar is derived from the Hebrew isha, meaning "woman." Women are sometimes listed as "sons" in Genesis and Exodus if the ruling line is traced through them, which is the case with Ishar (Ex 6:17), and Anah and Oholibamah (Gen. 36). The last two women are Horites of Edom, of the house of "Seir the Horite."

The priestly lines of Aaron and Korah were ruler-priest clans before they became divisions. One division, the line of Matthew (Mattai/Mattan) resided in Bethlehem. Joseph of Ari-mathea was in the priestly line, something that qualified him to be a member of the Sanhedrin.

Following the kinship pattern of his ruler-priest forefathers, Amram had two wives. One was a half-sister, as was Sarah to Abraham, and the other was a patrilineal cousin, as was Keturah to Abraham. Ishar was Amram's cousin bride, and Jochebed was his half-sister.

According to Holy Tradition, John was a cousin of Jesus through his mother Elizabeth who was sister to Ana (Anah). Ana was Christ's maternal grandmother (as the Anah shown in the diagram was Korah's maternal grandmother). In the relationship of John and Jesus, we find intermarriage between lines of priests according to the ancient pattern of their ruler-priests forefathers. John’s mother Elizabeth was of the “daughters of Aaron,” meaning that she was the daughter of a priest. According to Holy Tradition, Mary was also a daughter of the priest, Joachim. According to the custom of the Horite Hebrew ruler-priests, she married into a priestly line when she married Joseph, grandson of Mattenai (Matthew 1:16).

John's father was a priest of the division of Abijah (Luke 1:5, 8). Abijah's was the eight division of priests which apparently resided in Bethlehem. Bethlehem was a Horite settlement according to I Chronicles 4:4 which names Hur (Horite) as the "father of Bethlehem" and Rahab's husband Salmon, the son of Hur is called the "father of Bethlehem" in 1 Chronicles 2:54. Nazareth was also a Horite Hebrew settlement.
The eighteenth division of ruler-priests, called ha·pi·TSETS (Happizzez), resided in Nazareth. In 1962 excavators discovered a small piece of a list of the twenty-four priestly divisions. This third to fourth-century marble fragment is inscribed with the names of the places where four of the divisions resided, including Nazareth, the residence of Happizzez. The name of the division is of Nilotic origin. Happizzez is related to the ancient Egyptian word for the life-sustaining Nile which was Happi.

John's mother, Elizabeth, married into the priestly line of Amram when she married Zechariah, a descendant of Abijah. Mary married into the line of Amram/Korah when she married Joseph, son of Asaph. I Chronicles 26:4-8 tells us that among "Korah's descendants there were Obed Edom's sons Shemaiah (the firstborn), Jehozabad (the second), Joah (the third), Sachar (the fourth), Nethanel (the fifth), Ammiel (the sixth), Issachar (the seventh), and Peullethai (the eighth). God had blessed Obed of Edom. His son Shemaiah had sons who ruled their families because they were soldiers. Shemaiah's sons were Othni, and Othni's skilled brothers Rephael, Obed, Elzabad, as well as Elihu and Semachiah. All of these people were Obed Edom's descendants. They, their sons, and their relatives were skilled and had the ability to perform the service. Obed Edom's family included 62 men."

"Obed-Edom" refers Korah's descendants who were rulers in Edom. These Horite Hebrew rulers are listed in Genesis 36. Seir the Horite ruled in the territory where Abraham lived between Hebron and Beersheba. Seir's granddaughter is Anah, the maternal grandmother of Korah the Elder, whose daughter Ishar married her patrilineal cousin Amram, the father of Moses, Aaron, Miriam and Korah.

There were twenty-four priestly divisions after the construction of the Second Temple. Nineteen of these divisions are listed in Nehemiah 12:10-22. In this list we find these names of particular interest: Eber, Joachim, Joseph, Abijah, and Mattenai. These are the names of priests who married the daughters of priests and from these lines came John the Baptist, Joseph, Mary and Jesus, the Incarnate Son of God.

John the Forerunner's testimony concerning Jesus as "the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world" (John 1:29) springs from direct knowledge of the tradition of his Horite Hebrew forebearers among whom Messianic expectation originated.

Related reading: Edom and the HoritesWho Were the Horites?; The Genesis Record of Horite Rule; Matthew's Testimony Concerning the Empty Tomb; The Cousin Bride's Naming Prerogative; Samuel's Horite Hebrew Family

Friday, March 10, 2017

Welcome to New Readers of JUST GENESIS

Join the new Facebook group, The Bible and Anthropology.

This month Just Genesis celebrates 10 years! Over the years there have been many readers, some regular, and some who have come and gone. I hope those who have gone were not offended by what they read here. To those who have stayed, I say a hearty "Thank you!"

To the newer readers, this background would be helpful.

The science of archaeology in the Bible lands is called "Biblical Archaeology" and the science of anthropology pertaining to Biblical populations is Biblical Anthropology. The 66 canonical books of the Bible are the primary resource used by Biblical anthropologists, but we also look at other books of importance such as Baruch, Esdras, and the Wisdom of Ben Sira (Sirach). These contain significant anthropological information.

David Noel Freedman has said: “The Hebrew Bible is the one artifact from antiquity that not only maintained its integrity but continues to have a vital, powerful effect thousands of years later.” Both anthropologists and archaeologists turn to the Bible for clues and data. Very often this has led to wonderful discoveries!

Anthropologists are interested in material culture. We want to know what people made, what materials they used, and how they produced the things they used in daily life. What tools did they use? How did they bury their dead? What did they believe about the creation of the world? How did they organize for war? Where did the rulers derive their authority?

A central task of Biblical Anthropology is to uncover cultural antecedents, such as the origin of messianic expectation. Culture traits, ceremonies, rituals, and religious beliefs do not spring suddenly into existence. They develop organically over time from traditions received from the ancestors. Biblical anthropology provides tested methods and tools to push back the veil of time, to uncover anthropologically significant data that clarifies precedents, etiology, and context. The discoveries made in Biblical Anthropology prove helpful to students, pastors and academics.

The Bible is the primary source of information about the Horite Hebrew, especially the book of Genesis. Scholars have written about the Horites based on extra-Biblical information and often they have reached dubious conclusions. Had they considered the Biblical data they would have gained a more accurate picture of this very ancient caste of ruler-priests. Much of the research at JUST GENESIS focuses on the Horite Hebrew (Habiru) because they are the ones to whom the Creator first revealed the plan of salvation, and they are the kinsmen of Messiah.

The so-called "genealogies" are actually lists of Horite Hebrew rulers. Their lines intermarried. They had a distinctive marriage and ascendancy pattern which can be traced from Genesis 4 to the genealogical information in the New Testament books of Matthew and Luke.

People often say “I read the Bible, but I don’t understand it.” It is important to pray for wisdom before reading the Bible, seeking the Spirit’s guidance to understand and not misrepresent Scripture. People who insist on using Bible verses as ammunition in disagreements are not under the Spirit’s guidance.  They are attempting to co-opt Scripture to serve their agenda.

Understanding the Bible requires looking at the material with fresh eyes. If you are attempting to force the material into a pre-conceived idea, you will never see the big picture. Outdated and erroneous interpretations are set aside when fresh eyes investigate the Scriptures. Biblical Anthropology is simply another tool to help us better understand God's plan for humanity as it is revealed in the Bible. Biblical Anthropology does not rely on a single discipline, but rather seeks to understand by looking at how Biblical data aligns with findings in multiple sciences, including linguistics, DNA studies, anthropology, archaeology, and climate studies.

Saturday, February 25, 2017

Facebook Group Discusses Genesis

Learn to read the Bible through the lens of cultural anthropology and you will never read it the same way again.

The book of Genesis is one of the topics being discussed at a new Facebook group, The Bible and Anthropology. This international forum shares ideas, insights, discoveries, images, and documents that help the members gain a deeper understanding of the Bible through application of cultural anthropology. Anthropology degrees are not a prerequisite for participation!

Consider joining the group. Share what you experience where you live and how the experience relates to Scripture. Help advance the scientific field of Biblical Anthropology. The objective is to share and learn from each other.

Related reading: Support Biblical Anthropology ResearchWhy Biblical Anthropology?; Haplogroups of Interest to Biblical Anthropologists; Biblical Anthropology, the Science...not speculative theology; Using the Bible to Test Hypotheses; Contextual Incongruities in Genesis